Lack of hunger pangs, a clear mind, and rapid loss of extra pounds are all benefits of a ketogenic diet. Find out what types of keto diets are and choose the one that's right for you!
The ketogenic diet is no longer a newcomer to the world of nutrition and weight loss, but it remains the method around which there is the most controversy. And all because his followers are convinced - on fried chicken legs and juicy cutlets, you can not only lose weight, but you will never gain weight. Doctors Warn: The ketogenic diet is difficult, dangerous, not fully understood, and also fraught with many side effects.
The fat diet came to us from the world of medicine, where it was long used to relieve epileptic seizures in children. It is one of the varieties of low carb nutrition programs. However, the main difference between keto and regular is that fat is the main nutrient in your diet.
How it works
In the usual proper nutrition, the most favorable nutrient ratio (BZHU)It is 1: 1: 4, that is, carbohydrates are the basis of the diet. They are the main source of energy (calories) and are necessary for the nervous system as a source of glucose. However, numerous studies confirm that this is not entirely true. Swedish scientists have shown that as a result of increased fat and protein, as well as the rejection of saccharides after the depletion of its own glycogen stores, the body switches to another "mode". The usual metabolism is rebuilt and carbohydrates are no longer the main source of energy. The liver produces a special form of acetone called ketones (ketone bodies), which move with the bloodstream and affect the oxidation of fatty acids. As a result, our body enters a state of ketosis and draws energy not from carbohydrate chains, but from the products of fat processing, first by depleting subcutaneous fat and then using fats from food. Scientists' experiments have confirmed that ketones are more physiological fuel for the brain, while sugars, on the contrary, are cheap and fast energy, which in the future is the cause of degenerative brain diseases.
After overwhelming research results, professional athletes and bodybuilders became interested in this method. Ket food began to gain popularity and went from being a diet to a lifestyle that promised rapid weight loss, strengthening and increasing muscle mass, the absence of constant hunger and, as a result, a different life.
However, despite its effectiveness, doctors warn: the ketogenic diet is associated with the calculation of nutritional norms, which is why it is prescribed and monitored by a nutritionist. It is important to start, maintain and control ketosis correctly. Writing a menu program yourself means putting your health at great risk!
Professional athletes distinguish between three main types of ketogenic diets:
Standard (SKD - standard ketogenic diet)
This is a basic linear program with a moderate to high protein intake, a high fat intake, and a low saccharide intake. It is characterized by a constant supply of ketogenic nutrients without periods of carbohydrate replacement. SKD is ideal for people with little activity (sedentary lifestyle, irregular exercise).
How to calculate the nutrient balance? Take, for example, the standard ketogenic diet of a 75kg person with an exercise intensity 2-3 times a week.
- First, let's calculate the daily calorie intake (KRday). For our example, this will be around 2000 kcal / day.
- The required number of proteins (Bsut) is 2 grams per 1 kg of weight, that is, for our example Bsut = 2 * 75 = 150 grams / day.
- The daily amount of carbohydrates (Usut) is 0. 2-0. 4 grams. per 1 kg of weight, that is, 15-30 grams / day (we will take the norm of 30 grams for calculations).
- Let's calculate how many calories in the daily diet come from protein and glycides. Each of these nutrients is known to contain 4 calories per gram. Therefore, in our calculation, this value is (150 + 30) * 4 = 720 kcal.
- As you can see, in our example, a person should get 1280 kcal (2000-720) of fat. And since 1 gram of fat contains 9 kcal, then the daily amount of fat (F / day) = 1280/9 = 142 grams.
As a result of the calculations, we determined that for this situation, the diet should consist of 150 grams of protein, 30 grams of carbohydrates, and 142 grams of fat, evenly distributed between meals.
Cyclical (ERC - cyclical ketogenic diet)
An option for experienced bodybuilders who feel good about their body and understand proper nutrition, calories, and diet rules. The ERC is suitable for athletes who train daily and report a decrease in training effectiveness, in the context of basic and specific systems. The objective of this method is to determine the correct period between carbohydrate loading days (feedbacks) and to calculate the amount of carbohydrates that will allow you to work your body at maximum intensity.
Bodybuilders recommend the gradual introduction of food, starting with one per week, and monitoring your well-being by adjusting the interval between loads according to individual needs. Write down how many carbohydrates you ate per day and how you generally feel.
The main rule of the loading day: a decrease in the indicator W / day, while the B / day should remain unchanged (or increase). U / day depends on individual insulin sensitivity and is 2-3 g per 1 kg with low sensitivity, 4-5 g per 1 kg with normal and 6-7 g per 1 kg with high sensitivity.
Let's calculate the CDC caloric intake with normal insulin sensitivity for our example.
- B / day = 2 * 75 = 150 grams / day.
- Y / day = 450 to 525 grams / day.
- The daily calorie content of proteins and sugars on the day of carbohydrate loading is (150 + 450) * 4 = 2400 kcal.
- As in the previous calculation, we calculate the remaining calories, divide the resulting number by 9 and obtain how many grams of fat should be included in the diet on carbohydrate days.
Thus, the calculations showed that for 6 days of CKD the menu will be constructed as in CKD, and the caloric content (carbohydrates) of a day will be 2500 kcal (150 g of proteins, 300 g of carbohydrates and 78g fat)
Ketogenic diet for TKD
Suitable for long-term athletes whose performance drops dramatically after a long period without glycides and who can benefit from a low carbohydrate intake. It is characterized by a short-term "injection" of saccharides during the so-called "training window" (ie, before and after training), which will increase endurance, but will not suppress the ketosis process. The goal of targeted ketogenic nutrition is to provide a short-term increase in performance and endurance. In the absence of training, indicators are taken for SKD.
Let's calculate Y / day before and after training for our example:
- B / day = 2 * 75 = 150 grams / day.
- The increase in Y / day depends on insulin resistance and is +0. 5 g per 1 kg with low sensitivity, +0. 75 g per 1 kg with normal and +1 g per 1 kg of weightwith high sensitivity. It is recommended to divide these extra carbohydrates into two equal parts and eat them before and after training.
- As in the calculations above, subtract your daily protein and carbohydrate calories from your total diet calories. The resulting delta will be the calories attributable to fat.
Attention!This calculation is not a rule, but just an example. The calculation of the indicators for the basic menu should be carried out based on individual characteristics, and the fine tuning of the feedbacks of the specific and cyclical ketogenic diets is carried out exclusively by trial and error based on the well-being, the indicatorsperformance, endurance, intensity and duration of the training period. If you are unsure of your skills and experience, we recommend that you contact a nutritionist.
To achieve your desired weight loss results, follow these guidelines:
- Begin by fasting for one day. Only water is allowed.
- The diet should include: "correct" fats - 60%, protein - 30%, carbohydrates at least 10% of the daily calorie intake.
- Mandatory intake of vitamins and minerals (calcium, vitamin D, folic acid).
- Drink as much as you can.
- To consume foods from the allowed list.
Allowed and prohibited products
The initiation and maintenance of ketosis are facilitated by:
- high-fat fermented dairy products (including cottage cheese);
- lard, fatty meats, poultry with skin;
- sausages (ham, balyk, boiled pork);
- fish (preferably fatty) and shellfish;
- hard cheeses (try to choose cheeses with a minimum amount of carbohydrates);
- oils (butter, unrefined vegetable oils, coconut);
- high fiber vegetables;
- nuts, nut butters;
- pumpkin seeds;
- leaf salads.
- dark bitter chocolate with a maximum content of cocoa and a minimum of sugar;
- raw roots, vegetables, fruits that have not been subjected to heat treatment;
- tea, coffee.
- carbonated drinks;
- sugar, honey;
- baked goods, bread;
- skimmed milk, kefir, yogurts;
- margarine spread;
- starchy vegetables.
When creating a week-long menu for a ketogenic diet, nutrition experts recommend not focusing on the weight of the food, but rather making a menu based on its volume and calculating the BJU ratio.
Approximate ketogenic menu for a week, taking into account recommendations.
- Breakfast: 2-egg scrambled eggs; hard cheese; bacon; a cup of coffee.
- Lunch: vegetable salad ("Iceberg" leaf + cucumber + celery) seasoned with mayonnaise; fried chicken with skin; hard cheese.
- Dinner: steak; stewed cauliflower with mushrooms; Coffee with cream.
- Breakfast: cutlet; hard cheese; cup of Americano with milk.
- Lunch: salmon fillet with creamy sauce; steamed broccoli; lettuce salad with cheese and eggs, garnished with mayonnaise.
- Dinner: pork chop; stewed cabbage; vegetable salad; tea.
- Breakfast: 6-egg omelette with grated cheese (can be replaced with a protein shake); soy milk - 0, 5 l.
- Lunch: smoked brisket; fried zucchini with cheese.
- Dinner: red fish with cream sauce; vegetable salad with mayonnaise; yoghurt.
- Breakfast: soft-boiled eggs - 4-5 pieces; any sauce - 2-3 tbsp. spoon vegetable salad with cheese.
- Lunch: mushrooms stewed in sour cream; Spinach salad; Fried fish.
- Dinner: beef steak; toast with honey; Milk.
- Breakfast: scrambled eggs (3-4 eggs); Protein shake; hard cheese.
- Lunch: scrambled eggs; fried chicken breast; hard cheese.
- Dinner: salmon; unroasted almonds; salad.
- Breakfast: salmon; grapefruit; salad.
- Lunch: fish; vegetable stew; nut mix.
- Dinner: vegetable salad; a couple of sausages; cheese.
- Breakfast: eggs in a bag; cheese; vegetable salad.
- Lunch: turkey; tomato salad with mayonnaise; cheese.
- Dinner: cottage cheese; grapefruit.
Make sure to follow your drinking regimen. Drink at least 1. 5 liters of water throughout the day.
Contraindications and side effects
For several days after starting a ketogenic diet, you may feel weak, lethargic, and depressed. Such nutrition is unnatural and therefore especially dangerous for a growing organism. For adolescents, this food is categorically contraindicated. Long-term or inappropriate ketogenic diets can experience the following side effects:
- increased levels of bad cholesterol in the blood;
- violation of peristalsis, functional status of the gastrointestinal tract (gastroesophageal reflux);
- dehydration (as carbohydrates remove excess water);
- growth retardation (in adolescents) due to lack of protein;
- vitamin deficiency;
- lack of minerals and, as a result, bone remineralization, osteoporosis;
- inflammation of the pancreas (pancreatitis);
- hormonal imbalance and failure of the menstrual cycle;
Therefore, to avoid the development of pathological diseases and the exacerbation of existing ones, the diet is controlled by a specialist. When losing weight, a monthly monitoring of the condition is recommended, the delivery of basic tests (blood, urine). The correction of the ketogenic diet or its cancellation is carried out by the doctor based on the results of the examination.