The diet for diabetes mellitus is one of the methods of controlling the disease to prevent the development of acute and chronic complications. The key task of therapeutic measures is to normalize metabolic processes in the body by optimizing blood sugar levels to the maximum allowed value.
The key to patient well-being is adherence to a diet with a limited amount of carbohydrates and well-chosen drug therapy.
If treatment for the disease is not started immediately, diabetes mellitus complicates the kidneys, nervous system, blood vessels, eyes, and heart.
Etiology and pathogenesis
Today, 4% of the world's population suffers from this disease. According to the WHO, 8640 people with diabetes die every day worldwide, 3 million people die every year. This figure is several times higher than the death rate from hepatitis and AIDS. According to the International Diabetes Federation, as of 2014, the number of carriers of this disease is 285 million, at the same time, according to the forecast, by 2030. their number may grow to 438 million.
Etiology of the disease:
- hereditary predisposition;
- viral infections (flu, tonsillitis), as a result of which the islet apparatus is damaged and latent diabetes is formed;
- physical / mental trauma;
- vascular disorders, autoimmune.
External factors that contribute to the development of diabetes:
- prolonged mental stress, stress, fear, fear;
- eat foods with excessive amounts of carbohydrates, saturated sugary substances;
- overeating for a long time.
Symptoms of diabetes in men and women:
- polyuria (an increase in the amount of urine up to 8 l / day);
- weight loss;
- hair loss;
- increased urination;
- intense thirst;
- decreased libido, potency;
- itchy feet, palms, perineum;
- increased appetite;
- wounds don't heal well;
- decreased visual acuity;
- smell of acetone from the mouth.
If you find signs of a disease, you should immediately consult a doctor, since the effectiveness of diabetes treatment directly depends on the speed at which the first symptoms of the disease are detected, the conclusion of the diagnosisand conducting drug therapy. Remember, in the early stages, the disease is easier to treat.
Classification of diseases and function of nutrition
The main role after drug therapy should be the patient's diet.
The types of diets depend on the stage of pancreatic depression, the mechanism of its manifestation and the method of treatment.
Degree of the disease
- Type 1 diabetes. It is a serious autoimmune disease associated with impaired glucose metabolism. In this case, the pancreas produces nothing or very little insulin needed to maintain vital body functions.
- Type 2 diabetes. Often times, this form of the disease develops in sedentary people with age, whose excess body weight exceeds 15% of their total weight.
- Gestational diabetes. This type of diabetes mellitus develops in 4% of women during pregnancy, most often in the second trimester. Unlike the first two types of disease, in most cases it disappears immediately after the birth of the child, however, sometimes it can transform into the second type of diabetes. . . .
The less common forms (variants) of diabetes mellitus occurring in 1% of the world's population are prediabetes, latent, neurogenic, renal, steroid, bronze, MODY.
Types of diets for diabetes
Insulin injections, hypoglycemic drugs and physical activity are important to achieve a positive dynamic in the treatment of the disease. However, according to some doctors (A. Bronstein, E. Malysheva, V. Kononov), the right diet plays a fundamental role.
Types of nutrition programs
- A carbohydrate-free diet is a technique that is based on the consumption of complex carbohydrates from vegetables, fruits, in large quantities, and the exclusion of foods that contain simple carbohydrates from the menu.
- Protein diet for diabetes. This nutritional scheme is based on the principle of minimizing the consumption of carbohydrates and fats by increasing protein in the diet. The main emphasis in the methodology is the substitution of meat for lean fish, poultry and fermented dairy products.
- Low carbohydrate diet, used to compose menus for type 1 diabetics. 2.
- Buckwheat diet. Regular consumption of this product has a beneficial effect on the body: it reduces the level of "bad" cholesterol and saturates it with iron, rutin, calcium, magnesium, fiber, iodine, B vitamins. Buckwheat diet for diabetes helpsto minimize the probability of macrovascular complications and ulcers.
- The diabetes prevention diet is designed to reduce the risk of developing pancreatic dysfunction.
With the appearance of exacerbations of the heart system and blood vessels, diet 10 is practiced for diabetes mellitus. Its characteristic is a reduction in the consumption of fluids, salt, fats, carbohydrates, since these substances overload the liver, kidneys and excite the nervous system.
Let's consider in detail what kind of diet is needed for diabetes mellitus, recipes for dishes that can be consumed during the period of dietary nutrition.
When detecting diabetes mellitus, it is important to properly balance the intake of carbohydrates and substances that lower glucose in the body. To calculate the caloric content of products, a universal parameter called the unit of bread is used. At the same time, 1 XE (10 - 13 g of pure carbohydrates) raises glucose to 2. 77 mmol / l and "requires" 1. 4 units of insulin for absorption. Since the injection is given before starting a meal, it is important to plan a single meal portion in advance.
The carbohydrate content of a meal should be 4 to 6 units of bread. The frequency and time of meals are directly dependent on the type of sugar-reducing drug.
Product quantity that matches 1XE:
- sugar - 1 tbsp. ;
- honey - 1 tbsp. l. ;
- spaghetti - 1. 5 tbsp. l. ;
- fruit juices - 150 ml;
- ice cream - 60 g;
- sparkling fresh water - 180 ml;
- bread (rye, white, black) - 25 g;
- pancakes or pancakes - 1 piece;
- mass - 25 g;
- melon - 300 g;
- porridge (oatmeal, buckwheat, wheat) - 2 tbsp. l. cereals;
- sausages - 200 g;
- kefir, fermented baked milk, milk - 250 ml;
- mashed potatoes - 100 g;
- apples - 100 g;
- legumes (peas, beans) - 5 tbsp. l. ;
- kiwi - 150 g;
- pears - 90 g;
- oranges - 100 g;
- berries - 150 g;
- plums - 100 g;
- peaches - 150 g;
- watermelon - 400 g;
- dried fruits (prunes, raisins, dried apricots) - 20 g.
The carbohydrate saturation of the daily diet of a diabetic should not exceed 17 units of bread (2000 kcal).
In addition to counting saccharides, it is important that patients with pancreatic dysfunction carefully select foods for a meal based on prohibited and permitted ingredients.
Diabetes food table
||Wheat, whole grain, rye, second grade flour baked goods
||Puff pastry, pastry
|Meat and poultry
||Lean varieties of veal, lamb, chicken, turkey, rabbit, boiled tongue, diet sausage
||Fat from pork, beef, goose, duck, preserves, sausages, bacon, smoked sausages
||Borscht, cabbage soup, fish soup, soups: mushrooms, fish, beets
||Low Fat Solyanka
||Noodle soups, fatty broths, traditional kharcho
||Lean fish fillet
||Mussels, squid, shrimp, oysters, crayfish, fish of the salmon family (trout, salmon, salmon)
||Eel, caviar, canned in oil, fish of the herring family (sprat, sprat, herring), sturgeon (star sturgeon, beluga, sturgeon)
|Dairy, fermented dairy products
||Milk, kefir, cheese without salt 25-30%
||Homemade yogurt, 0% milk, feta cheese, 5% cottage cheese, yogurt, fermented baked milk
||Sour cream, 50-60% cheese, salted cheese, glazed curd, butter, condensed milk, cream
||Buckwheat, pearl barley, oats, barley, millet
||Semolina, brown rice, pasta
||Carrots, cabbage (all kinds), beets, squash, tomatoes, zucchini, eggplants, onions, turnips, radishes, mushrooms, cucumbers, fresh leafy greens, bell peppers
||Corn, boiled potatoes, fresh legumes
||French fries, sauteed vegetables, pickled and salted vegetables
||Quince, lemons, blueberries, pear
||Plums, apples, peaches, oranges, cherries, blueberries, watermelons, currants, raspberries
||Grapes, figs, dates, raisins, bananas
||Sambuca, compotes, sweetener mousse, fruit jelly, green cocktails with honey (1 dec. l. )
||Ice cream, cakes, greasy cookies, cakes, jam, puddings, sweets, milk chocolate with nuts
|Sauces and spices
||Mustard, pepper, horseradish, tomato juice, cinnamon, dried spices and herbs
||Ketchups, sauteed vegetables, store-bought sauces
||Tea, cocoa, ground coffee (without sugar or cream), rosehip and raspberry decoction, unsweetened fruit nectars, sour fruit drinks
||Natural vegetable juices (diluted)
||Sugary lemonades, kvass, sweet drinks, alcohol
||Vegetable oils (linseed, corn, olive, sunflower), unsalted butter
||Butter, meat fats
After converting carbohydrates into bread units, it is important to determine the amount of insulin that will be needed to utilize postprandial blood sugar. Following this recommendation will help avoid life-threatening conditions: hyper and hypoglycemia.
Diet for grade 1 diabetes
The type 1 diabetes diet is based on strict control of the blood glucose concentration at the level (3. 5… 5. 5 mmol / l).
Consider the characteristics of food intake, which will allow you to keep your level within the established limits.
- The maximum daily calorie content of dishes (total per day) is 2000 kcal.
- Fractional nutrition (at least 5 times).
- Remove pure sucrose from the menu to lower blood glucose.
- Distribute the main carbohydrate dose for breakfast and lunch.
- Don't eat at night.
- Avoid the intake of easily digestible carbohydrates: baked goods, honey, jams, preserves.
- Use a natural sweetener as a sweetener.
- To control the quality, "naturalness" of the products.
- Adjust the timing of insulin therapy for meals (the long-acting drug is injected before meals and the short-acting drug after meals).
- Calculate the number of bread units to take into account the amount of carbohydrates consumed per day. For a meal, you should not eat more than 8XE.
In the presence of gastrointestinal diseases (pancreatitis, ulcers, gastritis), the diet for diabetes mellitus prohibits the intake of products such as: pickles, smoked meats, rich broths, coffee, carbonated drinks, alcohol, mushrooms, canned foods that stimulateexcessive enzyme secretion, because they affect the rate and level of carbohydrate absorption.
Foods allowed for type 1 diabetes:
- yeast-free baked goods (lavash);
- berries, fruits (plum, cherry, lemon, apple, pear, orange);
- soy products (tofu, milk);
- cereals (pearl barley, oats, buckwheat porridge);
- vegetarian puree soups;
- drinks (lightly carbonated mineral water, berry mousses, compote of dried fruits);
- vegetables (onions, zucchini, peppers, beets, carrots);
- walnuts (unroasted);
- mild coffee, unsweetened green / black / fruit teas.
Do not eat:
- rich soups, broths;
- pasta, flour products;
- sweets (cakes, pastries, candies, chocolate, muffins);
- fast food, semi-finished products;
- alcoholic beverages (it is strictly forbidden to consume red wine for dessert);
- sour, smoked and spicy foods;
- fatty meats (pork, lamb, duck), fish (mackerel).
The daily calorie intake of an obese patient on this insulin diet is in the range of 1200-1400 kcal. In the absence of the need to get rid of extra pounds, portions of dishes can be increased.
One week diet for overweight insulin addicts
Day n. 1
- breakfast - bread - 1 slice, porridge - 170 g, green tea, cheese - 40 g;
- second breakfast - pear - 0. 5 pieces, young cheese - 60 g;
- lunch - borscht - 250 g, stewed cabbage - 200 g, vegetable salad - 100 g, steamed cutlet - 100 g, lavash;
- afternoon tea - rosehip broth, cottage cheese - 100 g, fruit jelly - 100 g;
- dinner - zrazy cauliflower - 100 g, vegetable salad - 150 g;
- before bedtime - milk - 200 ml.
- breakfast - boiled beef - 50 g, green tea, omelette, tomato - 1 piece, bread - 1 slice;
- second breakfast - grapefruit or orange - 1 piece, pistachios - 50 g;
- lunch - chicken breast - 100 g, vegetable salad - 150 g, pumpkin porridge - 150 g;
- afternoon tea - grapefruit - 1 piece, kefir - 200 ml;
- dinner - boiled fish - 100 g, stewed cabbage - 200 g;
- Bedtime - Sugar-free cookie - 50 g
- breakfast - lavash, weak coffee without sugar, cabbage rolls with meat - 200 g;
- second breakfast - strawberries - 120 g, yogurt - 200 ml;
- lunch - pasta - 100 g, vegetable salad - 100 g, steamed fish - 100 g;
- afternoon tea - orange - 1 piece, decoction of dried fruits;
- dinner - cottage cheese casserole with pears - 250 g;
- before bedtime - kefir.
- breakfast - porridge - 200 g, green tea, cheese - 70 g. boiled egg - 1 piece;
- second breakfast - toast with cheese, turkey fillet;
- lunch - stewed zucchini with meat - 200 g, vegetarian puree soup - 150 g, bread - 2 pieces. ;
- afternoon tea - lean biscuits - 15 g, unsweetened black tea;
- dinner - green beans - 200 g, boiled chicken fillet - 150 g, rosehip broth;
- before bedtime - dry diet bread - 3 pcs.
- breakfast - low-fat cottage cheese (up to 5%) - 150 g, kefir - 200 ml;
- second breakfast - pumpkin seeds - 2 tablespoons, raisins - 3 tablespoons;
- lunch - baked potatoes - 100 g, vegetable salad - 150 g, compote without sugar - 100 g;
- snack - unsweetened fruit tea, baked pumpkin - 150 g;
- dinner - vegetable salad - 200 g, steamed cutlet - 100 g or pancakes with blueberries in rye flour - 250 g;
- before going to bed - 1% kefir.
- breakfast - boiled egg - 1 pc. , fruit tea, light salted salmon - 30 g;
- second breakfast - cottage cheese - 150 g, carrots - 1 piece;
- lunch - green borscht - 250 g, cabbage rolls with brown rice and carrots - 170 g; Agave;
- snack - kefir - 150 ml. , bread - 2 pieces;
- dinner - fresh peas - 100 g, boiled chicken fillet - 100 g, stewed eggplant - 150 g;
- before bedtime - dry crackers - 50 g.
- breakfast - ham - 50 g, buckwheat porridge - 200 g, green tea;
- second breakfast - tuna salad, cucumber, cherry tomatoes, rye wholemeal bread - 150 g;
- lunch - stewed zucchini with carrots - 100 g, cabbage soup - 250 g, bread - 1 slice, chicken cutlet - 50 g;
- afternoon tea - cottage cheese - 100 g, apricots or plums - 4 pieces;
- dinner - squid schnitzel with onion - 150 g, compote of dried fruits;
- before bedtime - milk - 200 ml.
The low carbohydrate diet for diabetes is a strictly balanced diet for the patient to keep the sugar within the normal range and systematic weight loss.
Diet for type 2 diabetes
Basics of diet, health, nutrition:
- replace refined carbohydrates with sweeteners;
- the proportion of BZHU should be 20%: 30%: 50%;
- reduce the consumption of animal fats by up to 50%;
The caloric content of the daily diet depends on the energy consumption and the body weight of the patient.
Diabetes Diet 9 or Table 9 is a balanced program for diabetic patients with moderate to mild to moderate obesity. Following the same, the patient's diet consists of: proteins (100 g. ), Carbohydrates (320 g. ), Fats (80 g. ), Of which 30% are unsaturated triglycerides.
The diet for type 2 diabetes is almost the same as the nutritional program for people who monitor their health:
- divide your total daily meal volume into 5 meals: 2 snacks at 1-2XE, 3 main meals at 5-8XE;
- don't skip breakfast;
- maximum rest between meals - 4 hours;
- last meal in the evening: 1, 5 hours before going to bed;
- It is recommended to eat salads of vegetables, fruits, freshly squeezed juices, dried fruit broth, kefir, milk, green or fruit tea, sugar-free cookies (crackers), bread between meals.
Daily diet for type 2 diabetes
Day n. 1
- breakfast - asparagus - 100 g. , scrambled eggs of 3-4 quail eggs;
- second breakfast - salad of walnuts, squid, apples - 200 g;
- lunch - baked aubergines stuffed with pomegranate, walnuts - 100 g, beets - 250 g;
- afternoon tea - avocado and cocoa ice cream - 100 g;
- Dinner - Salmon fillet with radish sauce - 200 g.
- breakfast - yogurt, rolled oats - 200 g (you can use stevia or agave nectar as a sweetener), apple - 1 pc. ;
- second breakfast - fruit smoothies (grind 80 g of cherry, strawberry, melon and 4 ice cubes in a blender)
- lunch - baked beef - 150 g, vegetable stew - 200 g;
- afternoon tea - cottage cheese and pear casserole - 150 g;
- dinner - mixed vegetables - 200 g, avocado - half the fruit.
- breakfast: two-egg fried eggs with the addition of low-fat cheese, basil, tomatoes;
- second breakfast - "steamed" vegetables - 100 g, hummus - 100 g;
- lunch - vegetarian puree soup - 200 g, green peas - 50 g of chicken cutlets - 150 g;
- afternoon tea - pear - 1 piece, almonds - 50 g;
- Dinner - salmon - 150 g, yogurt, spinach.
- breakfast - baked fruits (apples, plums, cherries) in agave nectar - 200 g;
- second breakfast - sandwich with tuna and lettuce;
- lunch - beef fillet - 150 g, boiled cauliflower - 200 g, salad with tomatoes, arugula, parmesan - 100 g;
- snack: fruit and berry dessert (cut mangoes, kiwi, strawberries, combine with snow, pour orange juice and freeze) - 150 g;
- dinner - broccoli roll - 200 g.
- breakfast - orange - 1 piece; fruit tea, low-fat cheese - 30 g, bread - 2 pieces. ;
- second breakfast - beet salad with walnuts - 200 g;
- lunch - rice - 200 g, steamed salmon - 150 g, grapefruit - 1 piece;
- afternoon tea - berries with whipped cream 10% - 150 g;
- dinner - rosehip broth, squid escalope with onion - 200 g.
- breakfast - carrot and cottage cheese souffle - 200 g;
- second breakfast - zrazy cauliflower - 100 g;
- lunch - mandarin salad, chicken breast, arugula - 200 g, compote of dried fruits, vegetable borscht - 200 ml;
- afternoon tea - kiwi, raspberry mousse - 200 ml;
- dinner - steamed cod with carrots - 200 g, kefir.
- breakfast - baked apple stuffed with rolled oats, walnuts, raisins - 1 pc. ;
- second breakfast - fruit and vegetable salad of kohlrabi, celery, pears - 200 g, shrimp - 100 g;
- lunch - polenta - 200 g, greens, boiled hake - 200 g, kiwi - 1 piece;
- afternoon tea - strawberries with mascarpone - 100 g;
- dinner - cucumber salad with onion, spinach - 250 g, green tea.
Depending on the course of the disease, changes can be made to the patient menu.
Remember, the sample diet above is not a universal nutritional system for all diabetics, so it is important to monitor your well-being in the process of following it. In case of spoilage, "problem" foods should be excluded from the menu.
Diet for gestational diabetes
In some cases, the pancreas malfunctions in the body of the expectant mother, and as a result, gestational diabetes develops. In most cases, this condition is easy to control with proper nutrition.
Diet for diabetes during pregnancy
- Eliminate sugar, sweets, baked goods, semolina, sweet fruits, and foods containing sweeteners from your diet.
- Balances the daily menu. The daily intake of carbohydrates is 50%, proteins - 30%, fats - 15-20%. At the same time, the Malysheva diabetes diet allows to minimize the intake of food, which contains vegetable and animal triglycerides (5-10%).
- Observe the drinking regimen: 1, 5-2 liters of water per day.
- Enrich the daily diet with starch (cereals, rye bread, brown rice, legumes, sweet potatoes, Jerusalem artichoke, radish, beets) and fermented dairy products.
- Eat fresh fruit.
- Distribute the daily food intake in 3 main meals (breakfast, lunch, dinner) and 2 snacks (lunch, snack).
- Enrich the daily diet with multivitamin complexes for pregnant women.
- Reduce sugar with home remedies using decoctions of celery roots, linden flowers, blueberry leaves, lilac buds, bean pods.
- Limit caffeine intake. The allowable norm for alkaloids is 2 servings of coffee or tea.
The optimal caloric intake from the daily diet of a pregnant woman is 2000 to 2500 kcal. At the same time, a carbohydrate-free diet for gestational diabetes is prohibited.
Recommended menu for pregnant women with high blood glucose levels
- breakfast - millet porridge - 150 g, fruit tea, rye bread - 20 g;
- second breakfast - dry wholemeal roll - 50 g, 17% unsalted cheese - 20 g, apple - 1 piece;
- lunch - buckwheat porridge - 100 g, a mixture of cabbage, Jerusalem artichoke, cucumbers - 150 g, beef stew - 70 g;
- afternoon tea - 5% cottage cheese - 100 g, unsweetened biscuit - 2 pieces, orange - 1 piece;
- dinner - boiled chicken fillet - 60 g, vegetable garnish (carrots, cabbage, peppers) - 100 g, tomato juice - 180 ml, bread - 2 pieces. ;
- 3 hours before bedtime - kefir / yogurt - 200 ml.
In addition to following a special diet, patients with gestational diabetes are shown walking (40 minutes a day) and moderate physical activity (gymnastics, water exercises).
Diet for insulin-dependent diabetes in children
Diabetes mellitus in childhood and adolescence is much more difficult to manage than in adults. Genetic predisposition, stress and poor nutrition of a child are the main causes of the development of autoimmune diseases.
In 80% of cases, children are diagnosed with insulin-dependent diabetes (type 1). Early diagnosis, immediate treatment and strict adherence to a special diet will help prevent the consequences of the disease.
Diet for diabetes in children
- Exclude from the menu sugar, soft drinks, confectionery, wheat flour bakery products, fried foods, baked goods.
- Enrich your daily menu with sugar-free fruits, vegetables and herbs (unlimited). Prohibited: grapes, bananas, raisins, dates, persimmons, figs.
- Use natural sugar substitutes.
- Divide your daily food intake into 6 meals. At the same time, it is important to eat food at regular intervals. Allowable deviations in the child's nutritional program are 15-20 minutes.
- Meals should be taken after 15 minutes. after the introduction of insulin and 2 hours after the injection.
- If you cannot eat at the set time, you can have bread, pear, walnuts, cheese sandwich or apple as a snack. In no case should you starve.
- Taking a slice of chocolate right away will help stop hypoglycemic attacks. Therefore, an adult accompanying a child should always have a sweet product available.
- Enrich your child's daily diet with fermented dairy products.
- Calculate your daily fructose intake. The amount of sugar substitute directly depends on the age of the child and the nature of the course of the disease.
To reduce blood glucose, it is advisable for a child to give decoctions of blueberries, nettles, corn stalks, mint leaves, barberry branches, bean pods, Jerusalem artichoke fruits, ginseng and eleutherococcus.
Therefore, the diet for patients with diabetes plays an important role, since the well-being and life of the patient depend on the correctness of its composition. Therefore, it is important to take the compilation of the diet and its adherence very seriously and carefully, otherwise neglect can lead to tragic consequences.